Acero inoxidable: hechos significativos para el ortodoncista practicante

Santiago Arango Santander, Claudia María Luna Ossa


El acero inoxidable es uno de los materiales más ampliamente utilizados en la ortodoncia actual. Los arcos de alambre, brackets, bandas, ligaduras, tubos, entre otros aparatos, se fabrican utilizando diferentes tipos de esta aleación. La primera evidencia del uso de esta aleación en el campo de la ortodoncia se remonta a mediados de la década de los veinte cuando se introdujo como un material para fabricar alambres. Desde ese entonces, esta aleación ha ganado popularidad entre los ortodoncistas y su desarrollo posterior ha llevado al uso extendido en las diferentes técnicas de ortodoncia de la actualidad. A pesar de haber estado disponible por más de ochenta años, y del hecho que la mayoría de los ortodoncistas lo usan a diario, todavía existe un desconocimiento acerca de los principios básicos, composición y propiedades de este material por parte de estos profesionales. Por lo tanto, el objeto de esta revisión de la literatura es discutir las principales características y propiedades del acero inoxidable que son útiles en la práctica de la ortodoncia para que los ortodoncistas se beneficien de este notable material.

Palabras clave

acero inoxidable, alambres de ortodoncia, austenítico, brackets de ortodoncia.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Sfondrini MF, Cacciafesta V, Maffia E, Massironi S, Scribante A, Alberti G, et al. Chromium release from new stainless steel, recycled and nickel-free orthodontic brackets. Angle Orthod. 2009 Mar;79(2):361-7.

Kohl R. Metallurgy in orthodontics. Angle Orthod. 1964;34(1):37-52.

Chaturvedi TP, Upadhayay SN. An overview of orthodontic material degradation in oral cavity. Indian J Dent Res. Apr-Jun;21(2):275-84.

McCabe J, Walls A. Applied dental materials. 9 ed: Blackwell publishing; 2008.

Craig R, Powers J. Restorative dental materials. 11 ed: Mosby; 2002.

Kirkup J. From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1993 Sep;75(5):365-74.

Vijayalakshmi RD, Nagachandran KS, Kummi P, Jayakumar P. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and TMA archwires with timolium and titanium niobium archwires--an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2009 Oct-Dec;20(4):448-52.

Brantley W, Eliades T. Orthodontic materials. Scientific and clinical aspects: Thieme; 2001.

Kusy RP. Orthodontic biomaterials: from the past to the present. Angle Orthod. 2002 Dec;72(6):501-12.

Nikolai RJ. Orthodontic wire: a continuing evolution. Semin Orthod. 1997 Sep;3(3):157-65.

Kusy RP. A review of contemporary archwires: their properties and characteristics. Angle Orthod. 1997;67(3):197-207.

Yoo YR, Jang SG, Oh KT, Kim JG, Kim YS. Influences of passivating elements on the corrosion and biocompatibility of super stainless steels. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008 Aug;86(2):310-20.

Anusavice K. Phillips Ciencia de los materiales dentales. 11 ed: Elsevier España; 2004.

Dionicio Padilla E. Aplicaciones de los aceros inoxidables. Rev Inst investig Fac minas metal cienc geogr. 1999;2(3):11-21.

Kocijan A, Conradi M. The corrosion behaviour of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in artificial body fluids. Mater tehnol. 2010;44(1):21-4.

Izquierdo PP, de Biasi RS, Elias CN, Nojima LI. Martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel orthodontic wires during intraoral exposure. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. Dec;138(6):714 e1-5; discussion -5.

Oh KT, Kim KN. Ion release and cytotoxicity of stainless steel wires. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):533-40.

Park J, Kim Y. Metallic biomaterials. The biomedical engineering handbook. 1 ed: CRC Press; 1995.

Coates G, Cutler P. Nickel-containing stainless steels. Advanced Materials & Processes. 2009;April:29-31.

Mistakidis I, Gkantidis N, Topouzelis N. Review of properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires. Hell Orthod Rev. 2011;14:45-66.

Oh KT, Choo SU, Kim KM, Kim KN. A stainless steel bracket for orthodontic application. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Jun;27(3):237-44.

Cobb HM. The history of stainless steel: ASM International; 2010.

"New 200-series" steels: An opportunity or a threat to the image of stainless steel? In: ISSF, editor.: November; 2005. p. 1-11.

Cardarelli F. Materials handbook: a concise desktop reference. 2 ed: Springer; 2008.

Platt JA, Guzman A, Zuccari A, Thornburg DW, Rhodes BF, Oshida Y, et al. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997 Jul;112(1):69-79.

Chai G, Soderman A. High and super high strength duplex stainless steels for wire applications. Stainless Steel World. 2007;December:19-23.

Craig RG, Slesnick HJ, Peyton FA. Application of 17-7 Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steel in Dentistry. J Dent Res. 1965 May-Jun;44:587-95.

Craig H. Stress corrosion--new approaches: ASTM special technical publication; 1976.

Marques R, Saliba-Silva A, Rogero S, Montemor M, Costa I. A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of stainless steels obtained by powder metallurgy techniques for application in dental prosthesis. Mat Scienc Forum. 2010;660-661:617-22.

Oh KT, Kim YS, Park YS, Kim KN. Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004 May 15;69(2):183-94.

Oh KT, Hwang CJ, Park SY, Kim KN. InVitro corrosion resistance of orthodontic super stainless steel wire. J Electrochem Soc. 2002;149(9):B414-B21.

Damon Q. Orange, CA: Ormco Corporation; [cited 2011]; Available from:

Huang LH, Shotwell JL, Wang HL. Dental implants for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005 Jun;127(6):713-22.

Orthodontic Mini Implant. 2011 [September 2011]; Available from:

Anuradha Acharya K, Jayade V. Metallurgical properties of stainless steel orthodontic archwires: a comparative study. Trends Biomater Artif Organs. 2005;18(2):125-36.

Narayan R. Biomedical materials: Springer; 2009.

Pelsue BM, Zinelis S, Bradley TG, Berzins DW, Eliades T, Eliades G. Structure, composition, and mechanical properties of Australian orthodontic wires. Angle Orthod. 2009 Jan;79(1):97-101.

World Famous A.J. Wilcock Australian Wire. G&H Wire Company; [August 2011]; Available from:

Anandkumar B, Maruthamuthu S. Molecular identification and corrosion behaviour of manganeses oxidizers on orthodontic wires. Curr Sci. 2008;94(7):891-6.

Costa MT, Lenza MA, Gosch CS, Costa I, Ribeiro-Dias F. In vitro evaluation of corrosion and cytotoxicity of orthodontic brackets. J Dent Res. 2007 May;86(5):441-5.

Edie JW, Andreasen GF, Zaytoun MP. Surface corrosion of nitinol and stainless steel under clinical conditions. Angle Orthod. 1981 Oct;51(4):319-24.

Kim H, Johnson JW. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. Angle Orthod. 1999 Feb;69(1):39-44.

Lin MC, Lin SC, Lee TH, Huang HH. Surface analysis and corrosion resistance of different stainless steel orthodontic brackets in artificial saliva. Angle Orthod. 2006 Mar;76(2):322-9.

House K, Sernetz F, Dymock D, Sandy JR, Ireland AJ. Corrosion of orthodontic appliances--should we care? Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008 Apr;133(4):584-92.

Iijima M, Endo K, Yuasa T, Ohno H, Hayashi K, Kakizaki M, et al. Galvanic corrosion behavior of orthodontic archwire alloys coupled to bracket alloys. Angle Orthod. 2006 Jul;76(4):705-11.

Schmalz G, Arenholt-Bindslev D. Biocompatibility of dental materials: Springer; 2009.

Janson GR, Dainesi EA, Consolaro A, Woodside DG, de Freitas MR. Nickel hypersensitivity reaction before, during, and after orthodontic therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998 Jun;113(6):655-60.

Leite LP, Bell RA. Adverse hypersensitivity reactions in orthodontics. Semin Orthod. 2004;10:240-3.

Menezes LM, Campos LC, Quintao CC, Bolognese AM. Hypersensitivity to metals in orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Jul;126(1):58-64.

Noble J, Ahing SI, Karaiskos NE, Wiltshire WA. Nickel allergy and orthodontics, a review and report of two cases. Br Dent J. 2008 Mar 22;204(6):297-300.

Pazzini CA, Junior GO, Marques LS, Pereira CV, Pereira LJ. Prevalence of nickel allergy and longitudinal evaluation of periodontal abnormalities in orthodontic allergic patients. Angle Orthod. 2009 Sep;79(5):922-7.

Rahilly G, Price N. Nickel allergy and orthodontics. J Orthod. 2003 Jun;30(2):171-4.

Van Hoogstraten IM, Andersen KE, Von Blomberg BM, Boden D, Bruynzeel DP, Burrows D, et al. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991 Sep;85(3):441-5.

Mortz CG, Lauritsen JM, Bindslev-Jensen C, Andersen KE. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS). Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(5):359-64.

Todd DJ, Burrows D. Nickel allergy in relationship to previous oral and cutaneous nickel contact. Ulster Med J. 1989 Oct;58(2):168-71.

Enta T. Nickel sensitivity in women. Can Fam Physician. 1974 May;20(5):67-8.

Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menne T, Johansen JD. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings. Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Nov;57(5):287-99.

Ehrnrooth M, Kerosuo H. Face and neck dermatitis from a stainless steel orthodontic appliance. Angle Orthod. 2009 Nov;79(6):1194-6.

Jacobsen N, Hensten-Pettersen A. Changes in occupational health problems and adverse patient reactions in orthodontics from 1987 to 2000. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Dec;25(6):591-8.

Kanerva L, Sipilainen-Malm T, Estlander T, Zitting A, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K. Nickel release from metals, and a case of allergic contact dermatitis from stainless steel. Contact Dermatitis. 1994 Nov;31(5):299-303.

Matos de Souza R, Macedo de Menezes L. Nickel, chromium and iron levels in the saliva of patients with simulated fixed orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod. 2008 Mar;78(2):345-50.

Thilander BL. Complications of orthodontic treatment. Curr Opin Dent. 1992 Dec;2:28-37.

Alexander SA, Ripa LW. Effects of self-applied topical fluoride preparations in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2000 Dec;70(6):424-30.

Geiger AM, Gorelick L, Gwinnett AJ, Benson BJ. Reducing white spot lesions in orthodontic populations with fluoride rinsing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 May;101(5):403-7.

Walker MP, Ries D, Kula K, Ellis M, Fricke B. Mechanical properties and surface characterization of beta titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wire following topical fluoride treatment. Angle Orthod. 2007 Mar;77(2):342-8.

Kaneko K, Yokoyama K, Moriyama K, Asaoka K, Sakai J. Degradation in performance of orthodontic wires caused by hydrogen absorption during short-term immersion in 2.0% acidulated phosphate fluoride solution. Angle Orthod. 2004 Aug;74(4):487-95.

Kao CT, Ding SJ, He H, Chou MY, Huang TH. Cytotoxicity of orthodontic wire corroded in fluoride solution in vitro. Angle Orthod. 2007 Mar;77(2):349-54.

De Biasi RS, Ruela ACO, Elias CN, Chevitarese O. The influence of heat treatment in orthodontic arches made of stainless steel wire. Mat Res. 2000;3(3):97-8.

Backofen WA, Gales GF. The low-temperature heat-treatment of stainless steel for orthodontics. Angle Orthod. 1951 Apr;21(2):117-24.

Funk AC. The heat-treatment of stainless steel. Angle Orthod. 1951 Jul;21(3):129-38.

Ingerslev CH. Influence of heat treatment on the physical properties of bent orthodontic wire. Angle Orthod. 1966 Jul;36(3):236-47.

Gonzalez G, Santos O. Evaluación del grado de sensibilización en el acero inoxidable AISI 304. Rev Metal Madrid Vol Extr. 2003:80-5.

Campbell F. Elements of metallurgy and engineering alloys: ASM International; 2008.

Aydogdu GH, Aydinol MK. Determination of susceptibility to intergranular corrosion and electrochemical reactivation behaviour of AISI 316L type stainless steel. Corrosion Science. 2006;48:3565-83.

Clocheret K, Willems G, Carels C, Celis JP. Dynamic frictional behaviour of orthodontic archwires and brackets. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Apr;26(2):163-70.

Fidalgo TKS, Pithon MM, Maciel JVB, Bolognese AM. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva - an in vitro evaluation. J Appl Oral Sci. 2011;19(1):57-62.

Taylor NG, Ison K. Frictional resistance between orthodontic brackets and archwires in the buccal segments. Angle Orthod. 1996;66(3):215-22.

Obaidi HA, Al-Mukhatr AM. The frictional coefficient comparison between stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires ligatured to the stainless steel bracket via different ligatures. Al-Rafidain Dent J. 2008;8(1):79-82.

Upadhayay U, Agarwal P, Loomba A, Hivalekar A. Friction-an overview. Asian Journal of Oral Health & Allied Sciences. 2011;1(1):55-7.

Kusy RP, Whitley JQ, Prewitt MJ. Comparison of the frictional coefficients for selected archwire-bracket slot combinations in the dry and wet states. Angle Orthod. 1991 Winter;61(4):293-302.

Pelaez-Vargas A. Evaluación de la toxicidad in vitro, la adherencia y la nanotopografía de recubrimientos aplicados por sol-gel para implantes dentales. Medellín: Universidad Nacional de Colombia; 2005.

Ryu HS, Bae IH, Lee KG, Hwang HS, Lee KH, Koh JT, et al. Antibacterial effect of silver-platinum coating for orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod. Jan;82(1):151-7.

Demling A, Elter C, Heidenblut T, Bach FW, Hahn A, Schwestka-Polly R, et al. Reduction of biofilm on orthodontic brackets with the use of a polytetrafluoroethylene coating. Eur J Orthod. Aug;32(4):414-8.

Muguruma T, Iijima M, Brantley WA, Mizoguchi I. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Angle Orthod. Jan;81(1):141-48.

De Franco DJ, Spiller RE, Jr., von Fraunhofer JA. Frictional resistances using Teflon-coated ligatures with various bracket-archwire combinations. Angle Orthod. 1995;65(1):63-72; discussion 3-4.

Leander D, Kumar JK. Comparative evaluation of frictional characteristics of coated low friction ligatures - Super Slick Ties with conventional uncoated ligatures. Indian J Dent Res. Jan-Feb;22(1):90-4.

Rendón LA, Cano GA, Pelaez-Vargas A, Jaramillo PM, García C, Montoya Y. Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método de sol-gel. Rev Fac Odontol Univ Antioq. 2008;20(1):58-71.

comments powered by Disqus


Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Línea gratuita nacional

01 8000 420101


Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia

Cra 47 N 37 sur - 18 - Piso 1

Envigado - Colombia


57 (4) 444 6065 ext. 4112

Revista en OJS implementada por Biteca Ltda.