Células madre mesenquimales: una alternativa para la regeneración ósea

Lina María Franco-González, Luz Marina Restrepo-Múnera

Resumen


Las células madre mesenquimales (cmm) residen en la médula ósea y tienen la capacidad de autorenovación y diferenciación a múltiples linajes: osteogénico, condrogénico, adipogénico, tenogénico. Además, sirven como reservorios involucrados en la homeostasis, mantenimiento y regeneración celular. Su aplicación en alteraciones óseas (defectos traumáticos, enfermedades inflamatorias y degenerativas) ha llevado al desarrollo de nuevas terapias osteo‑conductivas o inductivas. Durante el proceso de diferenciación de las cmm al linaje osteogénico se requiere de la progresión de varios estadios celulares para alcanzar el desarrollo de la célula madura —osteocito—, responsable del balance y regulación de la formación de hueso; a su vez, las cmm pueden también diferenciarse a osteoclastos, involucrados en la pérdida de hueso (osteoclastogénesis). Diferentes vías de señalización han sido propuestas para comprender los mecanismos de este proceso de diferenciación osteogénica; sin embargo, aún no han sido completamente comprendidos debido a la complejidad de las vías de señalización y que además convergen en puntos comunes de activación, que finalmente llevan a las cmm a un fenotipo osteogénico.


Palabras clave


células madre mesenquimales; diferenciación; osteogénesis.

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Referencias


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