Niveles de metales pesados en muestras biológicas y su importancia en salud

Contenido principal del artículo

Lesbia Rosa Tirado Amador
Farith Damián González Martínez
Leonardo José Martínez Hernández
Luis Alberto Wilches Vergara
José Nelson Celedón Suárez

Resumen

Resumen. En la sociedad del siglo xxi —enfocada hacia el desarrollo socioeconómico—,
la continua industrialización, la práctica de la minería y de actividades
productivas como la agricultura resultan ser opciones atractivas; sin embargo, en
el desarrollo de estas actividades, es frecuente el uso y la emisión de algunos químicos
hacia el medio ambiente, entre los cuales se encuentran los metales pesados.
En el organismo de los seres vivos, hay pequeñas cantidades de algunos metales
pesados que pueden intervenir en reacciones bioquímicas, pero otros metales no
representan utilidad biológica. Por esto, la exposición ocupacional y la exposición
pasiva a metales pesados presentes en el ambiente o que provienen de la dieta deben
ser reguladas, ya que cantidades superiores a las consideradas normales pueden
ocasionar ciertas enfermedades. El control de la exposición a metales pesados
incluye monitorear los niveles presentes en distintas matrices biológicas como la
sangre, la orina, la saliva, el cabello y las uñas. Cada una de estas matrices estará
indicada según el tipo de exposición que ha experimentado el individuo; además,
ofrecerá algunas ventajas y limitaciones. Es por eso que la presente revisión pretende
informar sobre los efectos ocasionados en el organismo por niveles excesivos
de algunos metales pesados y la utilidad que ofrecen las matrices biológicas en la
determinación de estos niveles.

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Tirado Amador, L. R., González Martínez, F. D., Martínez Hernández, L. J., Wilches Vergara, L. A., & Celedón Suárez, J. N. (2015). Niveles de metales pesados en muestras biológicas y su importancia en salud. Revista Nacional De Odontología, 11(21). https://doi.org/10.16925/od.v11i21.895
Sección
Artículos de revisión
Biografía del autor/a

Lesbia Rosa Tirado Amador, Universidad de Cartagena, Facultad de Odontología

Odontóloga, Inverstigador del grupo de Salud Pública De la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena (GISPOUC).

Citas

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