Main Article Content
Introduction: This publication is the product of research, carried out in the field of management in year 2018-19, which supports the work of a PhD in Business Management at Chandigarh University. The purpose of this research is to explore the relation between Total Quality Management (TQM) constructs and productivity in the IT industry. This study has been conducted for organizations operating in the Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali) and NCR (Noida, Gurgaon and Delhi) regions.
Problem: The control of rising operational costs in any organization has become a challenge and is a major aspect in the sustainability of an organization. Implementation of TQM may reduce these costs by improving productivity in the software development process.
Objective: The objective of the research is to explore if there any relationship exists between TQM and productivity in software development organization and whether TQM positively impacts productivity.
Methodology: The study is based on a descriptive research design. A total of 206 respondents were selected using convenient sampling while 90 responded back on the survey. Exploratory factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression techniques were applied to obtain the results.
Results: Out of 4 elements of TQM considered in this study, Customer Focus and Continuous improvement were found to be positively related to productivity while Total Management Commitment was found to not be related to productivity. The hypothesis related to People Management was abandoned because it was highly correlated to other TQM elements.
Conclusion: TQM positively impacts productivity in software development organizations.
Originality: This study tried to create a causal mathematical model between TQM variables and productivity.
Limitations: Sample size and TQM elements were limited based on availability of time and resources.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
As the author of the article, I declare that is an original unpublished work exclusively created by me, that it has not been submitted for simultaneous evaluation by another publication and that there is no impediment of any kind for concession of the rights provided for in this contract.
In this sense, I am committed to await the result of the evaluation by the journal Ingeniería Solidaría before considering its submission to another medium; in case the response by that publication is positive, additionally, I am committed to respond for any action involving claims, plagiarism or any other kind of claim that could be made by third parties.
At the same time, as the author or co-author, I declare that I am completely in agreement with the conditions presented in this work and that I cede all patrimonial rights, in other words, regarding reproduction, public communication, distribution, dissemination, transformation, making it available and all forms of exploitation of the work using any medium or procedure, during the term of the legal protection of the work and in every country in the world, to the Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia Press.
 J. P. Singh, N. Kumar, and S. Uzma, "Satyam Fiasco: Corporate Governance Failure and Lessons Therefrom," IUP Journal of Corporate Governance, vol, 9, no. 4, pp. 54-64; 130-230. [Online]. doi; http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
 Deming, W. Edwards, Out of the Crisis. MIT press, 2018. pp. 34-54. [Online]. doi:
 M. Asher and G. Kanji (1996). 100 Methods for Total Quality Management. Sage Publications. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0101/bjet.12104
 B. Kitchenham and E. Mendes, “Software productivity measurement using multiple size measures,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1023–1035, 2004. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.57746/bjet.12103
 Nasir, Hassan, et al., "An integrated productivity-practices implementation index for planning the execution of infrastructure projects," Journal of Infrastructure Systems, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 74-93. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.04015/022
 K. Kassicieh and S. Yourstone, “Training, Performance evaluation, rewards and TQM Implementation Success,” J. Qual. Manag., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 25–38, 1998. [Online]. doi: 10.8478/bjet.18503
 S. Rahman and P. Bullock, “Soft TQM, hard TQM, and organisational performance relationship: An empirical investigation,” Omega, vol. 33, pp. 73–83, 2005. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1758/bjet.12758
 Y. Choong, “Perception and development of total quality management in small manufacturers: An exploratory study in China,” . J. Small Bus. Manag., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 102–115, 2018. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8473/bjet.84778
 D. Samson and M. Terziovski, “The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performanc,” J. Oper. Manag., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 393–409, 1999. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3564/bjet.56478
 J. Dean and D. Bowden, “Management theory and total quality: Improving research and practice through theory development,” Acad. Manag. Rev., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 392–418, 1994. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/bjet.18503
 J. Haar and C. Spell, “Total quality management; Organizational structures; New Zealand,” J. Enterp. Inf. Manag., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 162–178, 2008. [Online]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/17410390810851408
 S. Brah, S. Tee, and B. Rao, “Relationship between TQM and Performance of Singapore Companies. TQM and business performance in the service sector: A Singapore study,” Int. J. Qual. Reliab. Manag., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 356–379, 2002. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02656710210421553
 A. Oluwatoyin and A. Oluseun, “Total Quality Management. A Test of the Effect of TQM on Performance and Stakeholder Satisfaction,” Unpubl. Master thesis, Sch. Manag. Blekinge Inst. Technol., pp 34-543, 2009. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/bjet. 833631
 P. Corredor and S. Goñi, “TQM and performance: Is the relationship so obvious?,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 830–838, 2011. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4546/bjet. 756631
 D. Hoanga, B. Igelb, and T. Laosirihongthongc, “Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organizational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member,” Total Qual. Manag., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 931–951, 2010. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.0390/bjet. 354672
 M. Krishnan, C. Kriebel, S. Kekre, and T. Mukhopadhyay, “An Empirical Analysis of productivity and Quality in Software Products,” Manage. Sci., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 745–759, 2000. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.46.6.745.11941
 N. Slack, S. Chambers, and R. Jonhston, Operations Management, Third. Harlow: Prentice Hall, pp. 24-34, 2001. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3256/mnsc.46.6.745.11941
 R. Schroeder, Operations Management: Decision Making in the Organisations Function. New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 34, 1985. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8674/.46.6.745.11941
 E. Sasser, D. Wyckoff, and M. Olsen, The Management of Service Operations. New York: Allyn and Bacon, pp 34-64, 1978. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8674/.46.6.745.11941
 C. Witt and S. Witt, “Why productivity in the Hotel Sector is Low,” Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 28–33, 1989. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1108/EUM0000000001669
 P. Jones, “Quality, capacity and productivity in service industries,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 104–112, 1988. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0278/EUM0000000001669
 G. Low and D. Jeffrey, “Function Points in the Estimation and Evaluation of the Software Process,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64–71, 1990. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6758/M0000000001
 R. Banker and R. Kauffman, “Reuse and productivity in Integrated Computer-Aided Software Engineering: An Empirical Study,” MIS Q., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 375, 1991. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/2451/14331/1/IS-92-152451/14331/1/IS-92-15
 J. Capers, "Positive and negative innovations in software engineering," International Journal of Software Science and Computational Intelligence (IJSSCI), vol. 1, no. 2, pp.20-30, 2009. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.016295d
 A. Albrecht and J. Gaffney, “Software Function, Source Lines of Code, and Development Effort Prediction: Software Science Validation,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 639–647, 1983. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8674/.46.6.745.11941
 J. Sprouls, IFPUG Function Point Counting Practices Manual, 1990. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8674/.46.6.745.11941
 C. Symons, “Function Point Analysis: Difficulties and Improvements,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 2–10, 1988. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0434/.46.6.745.75641
 R. Banker, S. Datar, and C. Kemerer, “A Model to Evaluate Variables Impacting the productivity of Software Maintenance Projects,” Manage. Sci., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1991. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3664/.46.6.843.11941
 K. Petersen, “Measuring and predicting software productivity: A systematic map and review,” Inf. Softw. Technol., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 317–343, 2011. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0023/.46.6.745.95493
 S. D. Conte, H. E. Dunsmore, and Y. E. Shen, Software engineering metrics and models. Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Co., Inc., pp 13-56, 1986. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7584/.46.86745.11941
 A. Lowell Jay. Measuring programmer productivity and software quality, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1985 pp 23. [Online]. doi: 10.9449/.46.664831941
 B. W. Boehm, Software engineering economics, vol. 197. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-hall, pp 24-25 1981. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2002/.4978.745.11941
 L. H. Putnam, "Linking the QSM productivity index with the SEI maturity level," 2000 年 7, pp. 43, 2000. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1.1.519.8013
 C. E. Walston, and Ch. P. Felix, "A method of programming measurement and estimation," IBM Systems Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 54-73, 1977. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4758. 9.8013
 J. W. Bailey and V. R. Basili, "A meta-model for software development resource expenditures," Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Software engineering, pp. 107-116. 1981. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4502/.49564.745.11941
 J. Vosburgh, B. Curtis, H. Krasner, and N. Iscoe, "A field study of the software design process for large systems," Communications of the ACM , vol. 31, pp. 11, 1988. [Online]. Available: http://www2.unifap.br/furtado/files/2015/03/Artigo-3.pdf
 J. D. Aron, "Estimating resources tor large programming systems," Software Engineering: Concepts and Techniques, JM Buxton, et al. Eds, 1976. pp. 206–217. [Online]. doi: 10.6574/.8593.745.11941
 B. A. Kitchenham, “Empirical studies of assumptions that underlie software cost-estimation models,” Inf. Softw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 211–218, 1992. [Online]. doi: 10.8587/.8578.748.45.11941
 Brooks and W. Douglas, “Software Technology Payoff: Some Statistical Evidence,” J. Syst. Softw., vol. 2, pp. 3–9, 1981. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0948/.64783.745.11941
 C. Jones, Applied Software Measurement: Assuring productivity and Quality. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 4-23, 1991. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/0.2756/240816084
 K. Maxwell and For, “Benchmarking software development productivity,” IEEE Softw., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2000. [Online]. doi: 10.1.876.4955
 A. Trendowicz and J. Munch, “Factors inuencing software development productivity (state-of-the-art and industrial experiences),” Adv. Comput., vol. 77, pp. 185, 2009. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/1.1.718.4955
 J. Khan, “Impact of total quality management on productivity,” TQM Mag., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 374–380, 2003. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5643/97584-3-319-27799-8_16
 J. D. Blackburn, D. G. Scudder, and L. N. Van Wassenhove, "Improving speed and productivity of software development: a global survey of software developers," IEEE transactions on software engineering, vol. 22, no. 12, pp 875-885, 1996. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7463/978-3-319-27799-8_16
 O. Giarini, Liyanage, and P. Jayantha, "Perspectives on Performance Assessment and Management," Value Networks in Manufacturing, pp. 273, 2017. [Online]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27799-8_16
 C. Grönroos, "Scandinavian management and the Nordic school of services-contributions to service management and quality," International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 2, no. 3, pp17-26, 1991. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4748/3837-3-319-27799-8_16
 D. Anselmo and H. Ledgard, “Measuring productivity in the software industry,” Commun. ACM, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 121–125, 2003. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4675/978-3-319-27799-8_16
 F. Abusa, Jaiswal, Kapil, and Minakshi Garg, "Tqm Implementation and Organizational Characteristics: A Study on Tri-City Region." Gurukul Business Review-GbR, vol. 14, pp. 52-61, 2018. [Online]. doi: 10.4654/978-3-0494-9484-8_16
 L. Bani Ismail, An evaluation of the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) within the construction sector in the United Kingdom and Jordan. Diss. University of Huddersfield, pp 13-23, 2012. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14055/1/0666332
 Gharakhani, Davood, et al., "Total quality management and organizational performance," American Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 46-50, 2013. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4055/1/0666332
 J. Ali Bakhit and Z. Abedalfattah Al-abedallat, "The effect of quality management practices on organizational performance in Jordan: An empirical study," International Journal of Financial Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp 93-109, 2013. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6574/.8593.745.11941
 D. I. Prajogo and S. Amrik Sohal, "The relationship between organization strategy, total quality management (TQM), and organization performance––the mediating role of TQM," European journal of operational research, vol. 168, no.1, pp. 35-50, 2006. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.8495/8593.745.11941
 H. Kaynak, "The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance," Journal of operations management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 405-435, 2003. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4573/.853.745.11941
 J. C. Anderson, M. Rungtusanatham, and R. G. Schroeder, "A theory of quality management underlying the Deming management method," Academy of management Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 472-509, 1994. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0904/.88578.745.11941
 Forza, Cipriano, and R. Filippini, "TQM impact on quality conformance and customer satisfaction: a causal model," International journal of production economics, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1-20, 1998. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/.4O88.745.11941
 Ahire, L. Sanjay, and P. Dreyfus, "The impact of design management and process management on quality: an empirical investigation," Journal of operations management, vol 18, no. 5, pp. 549-575, 2000. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0950/.85785.5.11941
 B. Flynn, R. Schroeder, and S. Sakakibara, “The impact of quality management practices on performance and competitive advantage,” Decis. Sci., vol. 26, pp. 659–691, 1995. [Online]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1995.tb01445.x
 J. C. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory, 2d Ed. McGraw-Hill, p. 23, 1978. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7584/.95894.745.11941
 F. Talib, Z. Rahman, and M. N. Qureshi, "An empirical study of barriers to TQM implementation in Indian service industries," Proceedings of First International Conference on Industrial Engineering (ICIE 2011), organized by Department of Mechanical Engineering, SV National Institute of Tech. 2011. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4844/.85949943.745.11941
 Kumar, Raj, Dixit Garg, and T. K. Garg, "TQM success factors in North Indian manufacturing and service industries," The TQM Journal, vol. 23, no.1, pp. 36-46, 2011. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0003/.8593.968.11941
 I. Salaheldin, Salaheldin, "Critical success factors for TQM implementation and their impact on performance of SMEs," International journal of productivity and performance management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 215-237, 2009. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6574/.8593.745.11941
 E. Attakora-Amaniampong, A. Salakpi, and F. Bonye, “Total Quality Management and its Impact on the Level of CUStomer FoCUS within Construction Project Management in Ghana,” Int. J. Bus. Manag. Invent., vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 36–48, 2014. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7584/.8944.745.89443
 Kureshi, Nadeem, F. Qureshi, and A. Sajid, “Current health of quality management practices in service sector SME- a case study of Pakistan,” TQM J., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 317–329, 2010. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.0909/.8593.745.11941
 Brah, A. Shaukat, J. L. Wong, and B. Madhu Rao, “TQM and business performance in the service sector: A Singapore study,” Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manag., vol. 20, pp. 1293–1312, 2000. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7843/.74673.745.11941
 Y. Jung, Joo and Y0 Jian Wang, "Relationship between total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement of international project management (CIIPM),” Technovation, vol. 26, pp. 716–722, 2006. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/.8593.745.11941
 G. Darren and P. Mallery, SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, Fourth. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 45-84, 2003. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2100/.8593.745.11941
 R. Kline, Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guildford Press, pp. 32-76, 1998. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 2753/.8593.745.11941
 B. G. Tabachnick, L. S. Fidell, and J. B. Ullman, Using multivariate statistics, vol. 5. Boston, MA: Pearson, pp. 223-321, 2007. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 0134.790545
 J. Hair, R. Anderson, R. Tatham, and W. Black, Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, pp. 54-74, 1998. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 8765.7905.45
 L. Fabrigar, D. Wegener, R. Maccallum, and E. Strahan, “Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research,” Psychol. Methods, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 272–299, 1999. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1134.790545
 R. L. Gorsuch and S. E. McPherson, "Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-revised and single-item scales," Journal for the Scientific study of Religion, pp. 348-354, 1998.
 H. F. Kaiser, "An index of factorial simplicity," Psychometrika, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 31-36, 1974. [Online]. doi:
 B. A. Shaukatand and H. Y. Lim, "The effects of technology and TQM on the performance of logistics companies," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 192-209, 2006. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 9134.790945.
 M. M. Fuentes-Fuentes, C. A. Albacete-Sáez, and F. J. Lloréns-Montes, "The impact of environmental characteristics on TQM principles and organizational performance," Omega, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 425-442, 2004. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 0134.354.790545
 S. Narasimhan, "A study on effective implementation of tqm for sustainability," pp. 45, 2014. [Online]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 10603/42995/5/05
 E. Yuksel, An examination of generic service quality criteria for the evaluation of hotels. Diss: University of Surrey, pp. 64, 1999. [Online]. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10. 2980.66/42995/5/05