Static Worst-Case Execution Time Optimization using DPSO for ASIP Architecture

Mood Venkanna
Rameshwar Rao

Introduction: The application of specific instructions significantly improves energy, performance, and code size of configurable processors. The design of these instructions is performed by the conversion of patterns related to application-specific operations into effective complex instructions. This research was presented at the icitkm Conference, University of Delhi, India in 2017.

Methods: Static analysis was a prominent research method during late the 1980’s. However, end-to-end measurements consist of a standard approach in industrial settings. Both static analysis tools perform at a high-level in order to determine the program structure, which works on source code, or is executable in a disassembled binary. It is possible to work at a low-level if the real hardware timing information for the executable task has the desired features.

Results: We experimented, tested and evaluated using a H.264 encoder application that uses nine cis, covering most of the computation intensive kernels. Multimedia applications are frequently subject to hard real time constraints in the field of computer vision. The H.264 encoder consists of complicated control flow with more number of decisions and nested loops. The parameters evaluated were different numbers of A partitions (300 slices on a Xilinx Virtex 7each), reconfiguration bandwidths, as well as relations of cpu frequency and fabric frequency fCPU/ffabric. ffabric remains constant at 100MHz, and we selected a multiplicity of its values for fCPU that resemble realistic units. Note that while we anticipate the wcet in seconds (wcetcycles/ f CPU) to be lower (better) with higher fCPU, the wcet cycles increase (at a constant ffabric) because hardware cis perform less computations on the reconfigurable fabric within one cpu cycle.



Keywords: embedded processor, specific integrated circuit application, worst case execution time, particle swarm optimization, discrete particle swarm optimization
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