Tratamientos actuales del trastorno por atracón

Contenido principal del artículo

María J. González Calderón
Elena Ormaechea Alegre

Detalles del artículo

María J. González Calderón, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid

Doctora en Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España. Decana de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y la Educación, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid (UDIMA).

Elena Ormaechea Alegre, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid

Licenciada en Ciencias de la Información, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Licenciada en Psicología, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid, España. (UDIMA).

Sección
Artículo de revisión temática

Resumen

Introducción: a pesar de que el trastorno por atracón (ta) constituye un importante problema de salud, menos de la mitad de quienes lo padecen reciben tratamiento.


Objetivo: revisar la literatura reciente sobre las intervenciones llevadas a cabo en casos de ta.


Método: con el fin de llevar a cabo la presente revisión narrativa, se han consultado las bases de datos Pubmed, Medline y Scielo. Solo se eligieron artículos en revistas indexadas en la Web of Science. La literatura revisada corresponde a los artículos más citados publicados en el período temporal que abarca desde el 2010 hasta el 2015.


Resultados y conclusiones: los resultados muestran que las intervenciones más utilizadas son las de índole psicológica, entre las cuales se destacan la terapia cognitivo-conductual y la terapia interpersonal, recomendada esta última en pacientes con patología más severa. La terapia de conducta de pérdida de peso es menos eficaz al no reducir los atracones, por lo que no constituye el tratamiento de elección. Aunque algunos antidepresivos y antiepiléticos han mostrado cierta utilidad para reducir los atracones, el peso y patologías comórbidas, no hay evidencia de que la intervención farmacológica por sí sola sea más eficaz que la psicológica, ni de que mejore los resultados de la segunda cuando ambos se aplican conjuntamente.

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