Motivaciones para el voluntariado: consideraciones teóricas y una propuesta de operacionalización

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María Carolina Klos
Viviana Noemi Lemos

Resumen

Introducción: El voluntariado puede definirse como conductas prosociales no espontáneas, planificadas a largo plazo dadas en un contexto organizacional y que buscan activamente beneficiar a extraños (Penner, 2002).


Objetivo: Dado el interés por conocer aquellos factores que impulsan a una persona a involucrarse y permanecer en el servicio voluntario, se presentan las principales consideraciones teóricas referidas a las motivaciones para el voluntariado, proponiendo un instrumento para su operacionalización.


Método: Con la colaboración de cinco jueces expertos se construyó un instrumento de 62 reactivos con un formato de respuesta tipo Likert de 7 puntos. Participaron del estudio 320 adultos jóvenes, de entre 18 a 30 años (M = 22,34; DE = 3,36).


Resultados: Se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de la escala a partir de: a) el poder discriminativo de los ítems, b) la estructura subyacente de la prueba, y c) la consistencia interna de la escala. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian un funcionamiento psicométrico adecuado.


Conclusiones: El cuestionario de evaluación de motivaciones para el voluntariado podría ser una herramienta útil para el reclutamiento de voluntarios, la ubicación de candidatos en puestos apropiados y para el diseño de estrategias que favorezcan su permanencia.

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Klos, M. C., & Lemos, V. N. (2019). Motivaciones para el voluntariado: consideraciones teóricas y una propuesta de operacionalización. Pensando Psicología, 15(25), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.16925/2382-3984.2019.01.04
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